|65 BC||Born 8 December at Venusia, Apulia, son of a freedman who has a smallholding and acts as a public auctioneer.||63||Consulship of Cicero. Birth of Augustus.|
|c.55-c.47||Educated in Rome.||
|First consulship of Caesar.
Caesar’s Gallic wars.
|c.46||In Athens to study philosophy, where he meets Cicero.||49-45||Civil wars.|
|44||Brutus arrives in Athens (September). Horace enlists in his army as military tribune.||44||Assassination of Caesar.|
|42||Battles at Philippi and suicide of Brutus.||43
|Second Triumvirate. Proscriptions.
Caesar deified. After Philippi, Octavian returns to Italy.
|41||Horace returns to Italy under the general amnesty, but the family property has been confiscated. He obtains a position as quaestor’s clerk.||41||Unrest in Italy.|
|c.40||Writes his first poems and through this meets Virgil and Varius Rufus, a poet who is a member of an Epicurean group. They introduce him to Maecenas.||40||Maecenas represents Octavian at Brundisium and makes arrangements for his marriage to Scribonia.|
|38||Accepted into Maecenas’s circle of writers.||39
| Treaty of Misenum with Sextus Pompeius.
Octavian marries Livia.
Renewal of triumvirate. Virgil’s Eclogues.
|35||Satires Book I published.||36||Lepidus expelled from triumvirate. Sextus Pompeius defeated.|
|c.33||Maecenas presents him with the Sabine farm, through whom and through which Horace’s social and financial positions are secure.||36-33||Maecenas is in charge of Rome and Italy while Octavian is away|
|32||Satires Book II, including epistle to Augustus, published.||32
|End of triumvirate.
Battle of Actium.
| Octavian’s triple triumph.
Octavian accepts a share in running the state and assumes the name of Augustus.
|23||Odes Books I-III published.||23||Augustus receives wide-reaching powers.|
|c.20||Epistles Book I published.||19||Death of Virgil.|
|17||Carmen Saeculare.||18||Agrippa given special powers; dies in 12.|
|c.14||Epistles Book II published.|
|c.13||Odes Book IV published.||13||First consulship of Tiberius.|
|Last years||Ars Poetica.||9||Dedication of Ara Pacis.|
|8||Dies (27 November) a few weeks after Maecenas.||8||The month Sextilis is renamed Augustus.|